ASTONISHING REMAINS OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
Megaliths: Astonishing Artifacts from Human History
Megalith is the name given to monuments consisting of large blocks of stone. Many ancient megaliths have survived down to the present day. One of the most surprising aspects of these monuments is how such huge blocks of stone, some weighing more than a ton, were used to build the structures in question, how these stones were carried to their construction sites and by what techniques. How did the people of that time build these structures by placing one enormous block on top of another? These megaliths were generally built using stones brought from a long distance away, and are regarded today as marvels of construction and engineering. The peoples who produced such works must obviously have possessed some advanced technology.
The construction technique and technology employed on the pyramids are still a mystery. These giant works, whose construction would be hard to duplicate even using today's technology, were completed by highly competent people who lived over 2,500 years ago.
First of all, of course, planning is essential in order to create these monuments, and those plans must be communicated accurately and fully to everyone involved in the project. Technical drawings of where the monument is to be erected have to be prepared. Moreover, the calculations in these drawings must be free of any error, because the slightest inaccuracy will make it impossible for the monument to be built. In addition, the organization involved must also be flawless if construction is to take place. Factors such as coordinating the workers and meeting their needs (for meals, rest, etc.) are vital to the progression of the construction in the desired manner.
Clearly, the people involved in constructing these monuments possessed an accumulated knowledge and a technology far superior to what is generally imagined. As mentioned earlier in this book, civilization does not always move in a forward direction; sometimes it regresses. And indeed, most of the time, both advanced and backward civilizations are able to exist simultaneously in different parts of the world.
It is exceedingly probable that the people who constructed the megaliths in question possessed an advanced civilization, as shown by the archaeological and historical remains. The structures they produced show that they had a wide-ranging knowledge of mathematics and geometry; that they knew the technology needed to build monuments by calculating fixed points in hilly areas; that they used equipment (such as the compass) to determine geographical positions, and that when necessary, they could transport the materials needed for construction from many kilometers away. Obviously, they did not manage all this by using only primitive tools and manpower. Indeed, many experiments by researchers and archaeologists have demonstrated that it would have been impossible to construct these monuments under the conditions proposed by the theory of evolution. Researchers who have attempted to construct similar monuments by reproducing the imaginary "Stone Age" conditions postulated by evolutionists have failed dismally. These researchers have not only found it difficult to construct any similar structure, but have also experienced enormous difficulties in transporting these stones from one place to another. This shows yet again that people of that era did not lead backward lives, as evolutionists would have us believe. They enjoyed and understood architecture, made expert use of construction technology and engaged in astronomical investigations.
The Ishtar Gate, Baghdad
It is perfectly understandable that only stone blocks, stone structures and various stone tools should remain from the civilizations of thousands of years ago. However, it is not logical to look at a handful of stone structures and artifacts and conclude that the people of that time had an undeveloped civilization completely lacking in any technology and was only able to use stone. Such assertions, based on various dogmas, are of no scientific significance. But if we evaluate these findings without the negative effects of preconceptions, then interpretations rather closer to the truth can be made. Even if a society of hundreds of thousands of years ago lived in impressive wooden houses, built beautiful villas with glass windows and used the most attractive decorative materials, obviously very little evidence of this would survive the erosive effects of the intervening centuries of wind, rain, earthquakes and floods. Under natural conditions, it takes only an average of 100 to 200 years for timber, glass, copper, bronze and various other metals to be worn away. In other words, in two centuries' time, the walls of your house will be worn away, and very little will remain of the furnishings inside. Even less will be left if it is subjected to earthquakes, floods or storms. All that will be left will be stone blocks that take much longer to be eroded away. Even then, stone materials will be worn away into smaller fragments. On the basis of these blocks of stone, therefore, it is impossible to make interpretations about the daily lives of societies of that time. Their social relationships, beliefs, tastes and artistic understanding cannot be deduced with any measure of certainty.
Rudyard Kipling's book, Just So Stories
Yet evolutionists still attempt the impossible, adorning various discoveries with fictitious interpretations and inventing various scenarios. Producing fantasies by distorting the facts is something that is actually criticized by some evolutionists themselves! They have even given this approach the name of "Just So Stories."
That term appears in a criticism by the famous evolutionist paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, which term he borrowed from the 1902 book of the same name by the British writer and poet Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936). In this book of tales intended for children, Kipling told a number of imaginative stories about how living things might have acquired their various organs and attributes. About the elephant's trunk, for example, he wrote this:
In the High and Far-Off Times the Elephant, O Best Beloved, had no trunk. He had only a blackish, bulgy nose . . . But there was one Elephant—a new Elephant, an Elephant's Child—who was full of satiable curiosity . . . So he went on . . .till he trod on what he thought was a log of wood at the very edge of the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River, all set about with fever-trees. But it was really the Crocodile . . . Then the Elephant's Child put his head down close to the Crocodile's musky, tusky mouth, and the Crocodile caught him by his little nose . . . Then the Elephant's Child sat back on his little haunches, and pulled, and pulled, and pulled, and his nose began to stretch. And the Crocodile floundered into the water, making it all creamy with great sweeps of his tail, and he pulled, and pulled, and pulled. 38
Gould and certain other evolutionist scientists have criticized the literature for filling itself with similar scenarios, with no supporting evidence to back them up. The same applies to those who attempt to explain the development of societies in terms of the theory of evolution. Like Kipling's tales, the Just So Stories of evolutionist social scientists rely solely upon imagination. Indeed, consider a history of mankind based on societies whose supposed forerunners were only able to grunt and use crude stone tools, lived in caves, and survived by hunting and gathering, and who, as subsequently developed, began engaging in agriculture, and later began using metals, and began establishing social relationships as their mental powers increased. That "history" is no different from the story of how the elephant got its trunk.
Gould describes this unscientific approach:
Scientists know that these tales are stories; unfortunately, they are presented in the professional literature where they are taken too seriously and literally. Then they become "facts" and enter the popular literature. . . 39
In addition, Gould also states that these tales prove nothing in terms of the evolutionary theory:
These tales, in the "just-so story" tradition of evolutionary natural history, do not prove anything. But the weight of these, and many similar cases, wore down my faith in gradualism long ago. More inventive minds may yet save it, but concepts salvaged only by facile speculation do not appeal much to me. 40
Newgrange, one of world's best-known stone structures, consists of 93 megaliths.
This monumental grave near Dublin is agreed to have been built around 3,200 BCE. Newgrange was already old at a time before Egypt's civilization had come into existence, and before the birth of Babylonian and Cretan civilizations. Stonehenge, one of the most famous stone structures in the world, had not yet been built. Research has shown that Newgrange was not only a grave, but that its builders possessed a comprehensive knowledge of astronomy—and possessed engineering techniques and architectural knowledge worthy of emphasis.
A great many archaeologists describe Newgrange as a technical miracle. For example, the dome atop the structure is an engineering marvel all by itself. The single stones, heavy at the bottom and lighter on the upper parts, have been placed on top of one another so expertly that each one protrudes slightly from the one beneath it. From this, a hexagonal 6-meter-high chimney rises above the central part of the structure. On top of the chimney is a stone lid that can be opened or closed at will.
The entrance stone and the roof box at Newgrange. It is still not known how the blocks were transported, nor what techniques were employed during construction.
Obviously, this giant structure was built by people with an excellent understanding of engineering, able to calculate accurately, plan correctly, transport heavy loads of stone, and make good use of their construction know-how. Evolutionists can shed no light on how this structure was erected because, according to their unrealistic view, people of that time labored under primitive and backward conditions. But it's impossible for such an enormous monument to have been built by anyone lacking a sophisticated knowledge of engineering and construction.
The structure's astronomical features alone are astonishing. This giant monument has been constructed in such a way that at winter solstice, it gives rise to an impressive light show. Shortly after daybreak on the shortest day of the year, a shaft of sunlight illuminates the Newgrange burial chamber. At this point, a perfect play of light occurs. Rays from the rising sun pass through a narrow opening on the bottom of the roof box over the entrance and shine down the passage to the inner chamber. All the stone blocks are placed at angles that allow the light to reach them and be reflected off them—one vital factor that makes this entire light show possible.
You can see, therefore, that the builders of this giant structure not only had a knowledge of engineering, but also possessed a knowledge of astronomy that let them calculate the length of days and the movements of the Sun.
Newgrange is just one of many stone structures of that period surviving in that region. From looking at this structure, you can conclude that it was made by people with a deep accumulation of knowledge, using advanced techniques and methods. What interpretation can be made regarding the kind of lives those people led? The people who built such a structure may well have lived in comfortable, civilized surroundings. If they had a knowledge of astronomy and sufficient expertise to interpret those observations correctly, their daily lives must have been similarly civilized, in direct proportion to that accumulation of knowledge. This stone monument may be the only surviving building from a society that lived in comfortable homes, had well-maintained gardens, received treatment in good hospitals, engaged in commercial activity, regarded art and literature and enjoyed a broad, important cultural heritage. All these are realistic interpretations about the people who built this stone monument, based on the archaeological findings and the historical facts. Yet evolutionists, accustomed to thinking only along materialist lines, prefer to relate stories that are the product of specific dogmas, rather than make rational interpretations compatible with science. However, their stories can never express a definitive, true explanation.
Stonehenge may have been erected as the building blocks of a wooden construction. A wooden building erected on this would have been unaffected by wind and storms. It is likely that only the foundations of the building have survived. The methods and motives for the construction of Stonehenge are still a matter for debate, but one important feature revealed by scientists is its relationship with astronomy. The people who built this structure possessed an advanced knowledge of the heavens, as well as of engineering.
Stonehenge, a monument that stands in England, consists of some 30 large stone blocks arranged in a circle. Each of these blocks is an average of 4.5 meters (15 feet)high and weighs an average of 25 tons. The monument has attracted the attention of a great many researchers, and many theories have been proposed as to how and why it was erected. What matters here is not which (if any) of these theories is actually correct, but that this monument yet again invalidates the theory of "evolution" in the history of mankind.
Research reveals that Stonehenge was built in three main stages, beginning in about 2,800 BCE. In other words, the history of its construction goes back some 5,000 years. The initial stage of building included the digging of a ditch, bank and some round pits in the chalk. In the second stage, some 80 bluestones were set up in two rings around the center of the site and a heel stone was erected outside this. Later, an outer circle of giant sarsen stones was formed, with a continuous run of lintels.
One of the most noteworthy aspects of this monument is the bluestones used in it, because there are no sources of such stones anywhere nearby. These stones were imported to the site from the Preseli Mountains—some 380 kilometers (240 miles)away. If, as evolutionist historians claim, the people of that time lived under primitive conditions, with the only tools at their disposal being wooden cranks, timber rafts and stone axes, then how could they transport these stones all the way to the region where Stonehenge now stands? This question cannot be answered by scenarios that are mere figments of conjecture.
One group of researchers tried to transport bluestones as far as Stonehenge by reconstructing the equipment supposedly used at the time. To that end, they used wooden cranks, built a raft able to carry stones of an equivalent size by lashing three rafts together, moved the raft upriver using wooden poles, and then finally tried to move the stones uphill using crudely manufactured wheels. But their efforts were in vain. This was just one of the experiments carried out in order to establish how the bluestones might have been transported as far as where Stonehenge lies now. Many others have been performed, and investigators have attempted to understand what method of transportation the people of the time might have used. Yet none of these attempts came anywhere near achieving success, because they were all carried out under the misapprehension that the people who built Stonehenge had a backward culture and used only crude implements made of stone and wood.
Another point that needs emphasis is that the experiments in question benefited from present-day technology. They used various models produced in naval shipyards, employed ropes produced in high-tech factories, and made detailed plans and calculations. Yet even so, they obtained no positive results. However, people living some 5,000 years ago transported these stones, weighing many tons each, and arranged them in a circle by calculating their exact geographical positions. Clearly, they did not accomplish all this with stone tools, rafts made of logs and cranks made of timber. Stonehenge and the many other megaliths were built using some technology we are unable even to guess at today.
The Astonishing Remains in the City of Tiahuanaco
It is impossible for stones weighing many tons each, used here in the South American city of Tiahuanaco, to be transported without steel cables, winches, and other construction equipment
At about 4,000 meters (13,000 feet)above sea level, in the Andes Mountains between Bolivia and Peru, the city of Tiahuanaco is full of ruins that stun visitors. The region is regarded as one of the archaeological marvels of South America, indeed, of the entire world.
One of the most astonishing remains in Tiahuanaco is a calendar that shows the equinoxes, the seasons, and the position of the Moon at every hour and its motions. This calendar is one of the proofs that the people living there possessed a highly advanced technology. Among the other astonishing remains in Tiahuanaco are monuments made out of huge stone blocks, some of them weighing as much as 100 tons.
A Reader's Digest author wrote, ". . . the best engineers of today still ask themselves whether they could cut and move huge masses of rock such as those used to build the city. The giant blocks look almost as though a die were used to cut them. . ." 41
For example, the city walls were built by placing blocks weighing 60 tons on top of other blocks of sandstone weighing some 100 tons. The stoneworking used to build these walls required enormous expertise. Huge square blocks were joined together with accurate grooves. Holes 2.5 meters (8 feet)long have been opened in blocks weighing 10 tons. In some parts of the ruins, there are stone water conduits 1.8 meters (6 feet)long and half a meter (1.5 feet)wide. These are of a regularity which is seldom equaled even today. It's impossible for these people to have produced these works in the absence of technological means, in the way that evolutionists claim. That is because under the allegedly primitive conditions, it would take longer than a human lifespan to produce just one of these structures. That in turn would mean that it took centuries to create Tiahuanaco, which alone shows that the evolutionist thesis is false.
One of the most noteworthy monuments in Tiahuanaco is the so-called Gate of the Sun. Made out of a single block, it is 3 meters (10 feet) high and 5 meters (16.5 feet) wide and is estimated to weigh more than 10 tons. The gate has been decorated with various carvings. No explanation can be given as to what methods were used to construct the gate. What kind of technology was employed in the building of such an impressive structure? How were blocks of stone weighing 10 tons extracted, and by what means were they transported from the stone quarries? It is clear that all these things were achieved using more than just simple tools and equipment, of the kind alleged by evolutionists.
The Gate of the Sun, estimated to weigh around 10 tons, could not have been built by a society devoid of technological means, as evolutionists claim. Such structures invalidate the evolutionist claim that human history evolved from the primitive to the developed.
When you also consider the geographical conditions of the region where Tiahuanaco stands, the whole feat assumes even more astonishing proportions. The city is many kilometers away from any normal settlement areas and stands on a high plateau some 4,000 meters (13,000 feet)high, where atmospheric pressure is around only half that at sea level. The greatly reduced oxygen level here would make tasks requiring a human workforce even more difficult.
All this goes to show that, as in many other regions of the world, advanced civilizations existed here in the past—which invalidates the thesis that the societies always "evolve" towards more advanced states.
Stonemasons Who Lived on Gobekli Tepe 11,000 Years Ago
The stonework in the photos at bottom left and its detailed shapes display the artistic taste of the people who made them, 11,000 years ago. More important, however, is that the artists must have used metal tools to carve these stones, not by hitting or rubbing one stone against another. Such fine work is only possible by means of such tools, as the metal lathes, files and saws used in stonemasonry today.
The photo at bottom right shows a present-day stonemason at work, using similar techniques. Artists living 11,000 years ago may have produced their works of art only by employing similar methods.
Giant Building Blocks Weighing
The ancient Incan city of Sacsahuamán near Cuzco in Peru contains a wall built using stone blocks weighing tons, each fitted so closely together that it's impossible to slide a piece of paper between them. In addition, no cement or mortar was used anywhere. The blocks have been placed together with the greatest expertise and precision. How these enormous blocks were shaped to fit so perfectly against one another has still not been unraveled using today's technology.
Even more astonishing, one stone block used in the construction is even larger than all the others. This block is the size of a five-story house and weighs some 20,000 tons! How the builders of Sacsahuamán managed to transport it is a mystery. Even with present-day machinery, it is impossible to lift such an amazingly heavy weight. Even the largest winch in the world today will find it hard to lift such a load. The Incas of that time in all likelihood used some technology we cannot even imagine.
Giant Stones in Construction
Calls for Enormous Expertise
Structures produced using stones weighing tens of thousands of tons still amaze people today.
Moving such enormous stones can be done only using advanced construction equipment like winches and steel cables. It is impossible to extract these stones from the quarries, much less transport them, set them in place or work them using such equipment as timber, logs, ropes and easily-broken copper tools, of the type evolutionists claim were used. The small picture in the middle shows how the head section of the massive Ramses statue could be transported only by using winches with steel cables.
The rows of pillars in Luxor were ordered to be built by Amenhotep III and were decorated by Tutankhamen.
Baalbek, Temple of Jupiter
Giant stone blocks were also used in the construction of this edifice, now known as the Temple of Jupiter. The stone block marked with red in the small photograph is one of three large blocks used in the retaining wall. Each of these three blocks is some 4.5 meters (15 feet) high, 3.5 meters (11 feet) wide and 19 meters (62 feet)long. Their average weight is around 800 tons. That such huge blocks were extracted and transported from their quarries suggests the advanced construction equipment that must have been used.
The Obelisks That Evolutionists
Unable To Explain
Obelisks are one of the astonishing remains to have survived to our day from past civilizations. Some highly advanced technology must have been used to extract these upright stones, averaging 20 meters (65 feet)in length and weighing many tons, from the quarries, transport them, carve their surfaces and place them in upright positions. One of the oldest known of these large obelisks is that erected in Karnak, Egypt around 1,400 BCE. It stands 29.5 meters (97 feet) high, 1.62 meters (5.3 feet) wide and weighs 325 tons. Technical expertise and proper infrastructure are required to transport such a huge, heavy block from the quarry to its present location in a single piece. Tools of bronze and copper bend easily, and could not be used, so tools of iron and steel were obviously needed. This refutes the evolutionist claim that iron and similar metals were unknown at the time in question.
The section assumed to have been on the top of the obelisk (as shown in red circle) may indicate that these standing stones were used as lightning rods.
An unfinished obelisk in a granite quarry near Aswan. This obelisk, twice the height of the others, is 41.75 meters (137 feet) tall and some 1,168 tons in weight. Advanced technology must have been used to extract this giant stone from the quarry and transport it to its destination.
In Puma Punku That Refute Evolution
The size of the megaliths forming the ruins of the pyramid at the Puma Punku amazes visitors. One block in the step-pyramid, whose base measures approximately 60 meters (197 feet) by 50 meters (164 feet), weighs some 447 tons. The other stones used weigh between 100 and 200 tons. It is illogical to maintain, as evolutionists do, that these gigantic blocks were transported on logs using thick ropes.
Evolutionist archaeology can't explain the marks where a great many megaliths at the Puma Punku are joined together. These are reminiscent of metal clamps. For a long time it was thought that these T-shaped clamps had been pre-cast at a furnace, then placed cold into carved indentations in the blocks. Later investigations using scanning electron microscope, however, revealed that they were poured molten into the indentations. Spectrographic analysis showed that these clamps consisted of an alloy of 2.05% arsenic, 95.15% copper, 0.26% iron, 0.84% silicon and 1.70% nickel. All this is evidence that past societies used advanced equipment during the construction process. 42
Imprint of metal clamp frequently encountered at the Puma Punku
Imprint of metal clamp seen on the blocks at Ollantaytambo
Imprint of metal clamp on stone structures at Angkor Wat, Cambodia
38. Rudyard Kipling, The Elephant's Child, from Just So Stories, 1902;
39. Stephen Jay Gould, "Introduction," in Björn Kurtén, Dance of the Tiger: A Novel of the Ice Age, New York: Random House, 1980, pp. xvii-xviii.
40. Stephen Jay Gould, "The Return of Hopeful Monsters," in The Panda's Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History, , London: Penguin, 1990, reprint, p. 158.
41. Simone Waisbard, in The World's Last Mysteries (2nd edition), Reader's Digest, 1978, p. 138.
42. Graham Hancock, Santha Faiia, Heaven's Mirror: Quest for the Lost Civilization, New York: Three Rivers Press, 1998, p. 304.